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The majority of such quantitative traits are based on the collective effects of numerous genes (polygenic systems) that each may have only small effect but cooperatively they may bring about large variations anxiety dogs order escitalopram in united states online. Traits subject to continuous variation are characterized by their adaptation to the normal distribution or some classes of it anxiety feeling cheap escitalopram 20 mg mastercard. These variations are affected also by environmental factors and the outcome is a continuous or almost continuous series anxiety rings buy escitalopram line, and from a relatively small to a relatively large phenotypic effect anxiety symptoms yahoo answers order escitalopram 5 mg amex. Continuous variation cannot be classified into discrete categories such as black or white but they have a running spectrum. The characterization is made by counting or measurements or by systems of grading (such as learning scores, disease susceptibility, etc. Chromosomal constriction Construct: A construct is most commonly used for the designation of a specially built plasmid or engineered chromosome. Contact Guidance: the physical environment in the tissue may guide the movement of axons. Cancer cells lose the dependence on anchorage and constraints in growth by neighbors. The oncogenic transformant cells thus, can pile up in an apparently disorganized manner into tumors. The inhibitory strain must have a special growth state and the target cells must express pili. Containment: A safe place from where hazardous material, including certain type of biological vectors, cannot presumably escape, and thus can be worked with, safely. Many genes perform different role in different organs depending upon the effect of other genes active in the different environment. Contractile Vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles occur in ciliated algae near the base of the flagella. The standard must be identical and treated identically to the experimental material except of the special condition (genotype, developmental stage, time, chemicals, etc. The negative control includes all elements except the genetic (or other) condition under investigation. Use of appropriate controls is indispensable in the objective evaluation of scientific data. Controlled Mating: the chart shows the percentage of homozygosis in successive generations of controlled mating systems and the limit of eventual homozygosity after an infinite number of generations (see. Different mating systems have important consequences for the genotypic composition of the population. Controlled mating is generally used by plant and animal breeders and in all types of genetic experiments. Controlled mating Coombs Test 417 Controlled mating of humans has been advocated by the discredited negative eugenics movements. The assortative matings based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or other bases within smaller human groups may also be controlled matings with the same biological consequences. Civil and religious laws impose some controlled mating rules involving close relatives. Some state laws prohibited marriage among mentally defective individuals, including even sterilization. Most of the controlled mating laws are no longer enforced in enlightened societies, except for the marriage between close relatives. Insemination by donor sperm may possibly have some risk since the paternity is generally not known to the offspring and incest may not be prevented. Controlled Vocabulary: Controlled vocabulary is a term used in bioinformatics for indicating that a standardized form is used in a given application. Enzyme nomenclature is a good example for representing the classes of enzymes according to biochemical reaction. Conversion: An early, hypothetical step after the first mutational event in carcinogenesis. During this process, the cells become receptive to tumor promotion (propagation of the mutant cell line), and conversion is eventually followed by progression (involving additional stimulatory mutations) and malignancy. Conversion: In human-rodent fusion hybrid cell lines, only one human chromosome may be retained and in this monosomic condition the recessive allele can be expressed. Conversion ascus Convertant: gene conversion Convertase: A large enzyme complex that activates components of the complement. The polymorphic serum 418 Cooperate Stability gamma globulin complex (IgG), present in about 60% of some populations, may interfere with the reaction.

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Colicin E5 bacteria harboring Col plasmids are immune to the lethal effects of colicins and this property is used to select Col-transformed bacterial cells anxiety oils order discount escitalopram. Colicin resistance mutations occur at appreciable frequencies in bacterial populations anxiety lack of sleep order 10 mg escitalopram free shipping. The ColE1 plasmid replicon has been used for the construction of genetic vectors and has been engineered into cosmids and other plasmids anxiety symptoms youtube discount escitalopram 10mg free shipping. Colicinogenic Bacteria: Killer strains producing colicines (bacterial toxins) Colicins: Produced by killer E separation anxiety discount 5 mg escitalopram visa. Colicins require binding to the extracellular receptor (BtuB, vitamin B12 receptor) of the target cells. Collaborative Tagging: Web users are exposed to a resource and freely associate tags with it. Their interaction with the system also exposes them to tags previously entered by themselves and by other users. The aggregated activity of users leads to an emergent categorization of resources in terms of tags shared by a community. Collagen: A fibrous protein built mainly from hydrophobic amino acids (35% Gly, 11% Ala, 21% Pro and hydroxyproline). It forms a left handed helix with three residues per turn, made up of repeated units with glycine at every third position. The collagens form triple helices from three polypeptide chains and play Collinsia 391 structural roles in the cell (see. The 38-kbp chicken collagen gene (similar to the gene in humans and in mice) has 52 introns and short exons (54 to 108 bp) built of tandem repeats of nine bases. There are roughly nine types of collagens, encoded by about 17 gene loci in humans. Collenchyma: Found in the stems of plants, collenchyma are parenchymal cells that fit together closely; they have thickened walls especially at the corners (see. Collenchyma Colletotrichum circinans: A fungal parasite producing "smudge" on sensitive onions. Generally white onions are susceptible because they lack the gene for the synthesis of parachatechuic acid that inhibits the parasite. Some varieties of onions have an I (inhibitor) allele that prevents the expression of W; thus in the F2 of the double heterozygote there are 13 white susceptible and three red and resistant segregants. Collagen Collagenases: Collagenases are cell surface metalloproteinases involved in remodeling the cellular matrix, and thus shape cells and facilitate cell migration. Collapsin: A member of the protein family of semaphorin; it seems to be inhibitory to axon outgrowth. Collateral Relatives: Animals in a breeding program that have one or more common ancestors but are not direct descendants of these ancestors. Collectins: Broad-spectrum, complement-like antimicrobial glycoproteins in mammals. In the homeotic complexes generally there is another "position effect"; the products of the relatively posterior acting genes appear to be more abundant than that of the anterior ones. Recent information indicates that collinearity is not completely valid for some/most parts of the genome because the same genetic elements are used differently in different contexts of genes and form an interleaved or modular genomic architecture (Kapranov P et al 2007 Nature Rev Genet: 413). Lac operon, lambda phage, morphogenesis in Drosophila, homeotic genes; Yanofsky C, Horn V 1972 Biol Chem 247:4494. Collodion: An alcohol and ether solution of pyroxylin (mainly nitrocellulose), used in microtechnical preparations and as a skin protector veterinary procedure. Collodion Fetus: A variable form of ichthyosis (collodion like) present before and after birth that may or may not heal during later development. Colobidae (Old World primates, langurs): Nasalis larvatus 2n = 48; Presbytis crystatus 2n = 44; Presbytis entellis 2n = 44; Presbytis obscurus 2n = 44; Pygathrix nemaeus 2n = 44. Autosomal dominant or recessive genes may control it but X-linkage has also been suggested for some forms. The shape of the colony for a certain bacterial strain may vary according to the nutrient content and diffusion, the movement and reproduction of the bacteria, and local cell communication. A library of the fragments is then established by cloning the fragments with the aid of a cloning vector. After the colonies are formed a replica plate is established from the master plate by pressing over it a membrane filter. By permission of the National March of Dimes Foundation) Colon Cancer: colorectal cancer Colony Lift: A colony lift is basically similar to a plaque lift.

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Marsupial Y chromosomes are extremely small yet they contain testisdetermining and other sequences homologous to other mammals although the Y chromosome is not critical for sex determination anxiety and high blood pressure generic escitalopram 10 mg fast delivery. Their sex chromosomes also carry a pseudoautosomal region at their tip but do not form synaptonemal complex and do not recombine anxiety symptoms light sensitivity order escitalopram no prescription. The virus-infected cells are subjected then to selection for the desired phenotype anxiety krizz kaliko cheap 20mg escitalopram free shipping. Proviruses are recovered and used for the production of virus and further screening anxiety panic attack symptoms buy 5mg escitalopram. In about half of the states first cousin and half sibling unions are also prohibited. The acronym is derived from (i) accumulation of defective mitochondria, (ii) accumulation of aberrant proteins, (iii) effect of oxygen-free radicals and antioxidant enzymes, (iv) turnover of proteolytic scavengers. Masked Sequences: Masked sequences of nucleic acids are associated with either proteins or other molecules to protect them from degradation. The program called RepeatMasker most frequently used to masks repeats. Maspin: A protease inhibitor of the serpin family; maspin sequences are frequently lost from advanced cancer cells. Mass Spectrum: When in the mass spectrometer molecules are exposed to energetic electrons they are ionized and fragmented. The m/ e values are characteristic for particular compounds and provide the mass spectrum for chemical analysis. Quantitative mass spectrometry uses the incorporation of a stable isotope (N15) derivative that shifts the mass of the peptides in a known extent. Shotgun mass spectrometry identifies components of a protein mixture by first identifying the mass of peptide fragments. The template-containing microbeads are assembled in a flow cell in a close planar, fixed array while the sequencing reagents are pumped through. The procedures facilitate the early recognition of gene products involved in the development of disease and may permit intervention. The improved system is capable of sequencing 25 million bases within four hours in picoliter size wells 1. It is about two-order magnitude faster than the standard Sanger method and has an accuracy of >99%. Although it seems very convenient for relatively small (microbial) genomes, it is not yet practical with large (mammalian) systems (Margulies M et al 2005 Nature [Lond] 437:376). Mass-to-Charge (m/e, m/z): mass spectrum Mast Cells: They reside in the connective or hemopoietic tissues and play an important role in natural and acquired immunity. They are responsible for the inflammation reactions in allergies and susceptibility to bee and snake venoms by facilitating vascular permeability. On the other hand, they release carboxypeptidase A and probably other proteases, which can degrade the venoms (Metz M et al 2006 Science 313:526). Master molecule: Regulates series of reactions in differentiation, involving several genes. The Mest/Peg1 (mouse chromosome 6, human chromosome 7q32) is expressed only from the paternally transmitted allele and its defect leads to altered maternal behavior. Maternal Effect Genes: Display delayed inheritance because only the offspring of the homozygous or heterozygous dominant females is affected; these females themselves may appear normal. The Drosophila egg chamber cysts are surrounded by follicle cells and inside the diploid primary oocyte is shown with the often polyploid nurse cells. The maternal genes affect oogenesis and the early development of the embryo 1160 Maternal Embryo Maternal Embryo: Develops from an unfertilized egg. The heritability of such traits is variable and generally low yet it contributes measurably to fitness. Maternal Tolerance: the embryo expresses antigens that is supposed to be foreign to the maternal tissues yet usually the embryo does not suffer immunological rejection. Maternity Verification: Rarely needed as the Romans held "mater certa" (mother is certain); in case of legal disputes, the methods of forensic genetics are available.

Electric shocks localized to the globus pallidus (a medial part of the brain) had beneficial effects in some cases anxiety symptoms anger buy discount escitalopram. Activation of intracellular neurotrophic signaling pathways by vector transfer is a feasible approach to neuroprotection and restorative treatment of neurodegenerative disease anxiety symptoms blood pressure generic escitalopram 10mg amex. Paroxysm: Recurring events such as convulsions (but most commonly normal conditions in between) anxiety lost night escitalopram 10 mg with visa, sudden outbreak of disease anxiety 8 year old son cheap escitalopram 20mg without a prescription. Its deficiency increases the sensitivity to radiation damage, recombination and sister chromatid exchange. Parsley Particulate Inheritance 1447 Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa): A root vegetable; 2n = 2x = 22 (see. The failure of parthenogenetic development of mammalian offspring is due to the requirement for imprinting (Kono T et al 2004 Nature [Lond] 428:860). Many plant species successfully survive by asexual reproduction as an evolutionary mechanism. Asexually reproducing plant populations appear to be preponderant under conditions marginally suitable for the species is called geographic parthenogenesis. Parthenote: An egg stimulated to divide and develop to some extent in the absence of fertilization by sperm. Parthenotes may offer possibilities for stem cell production for therapeutic purposes when embryonic stem cells are prohibited. Partial Linkage: the genes are less than 50 map units apart in the chromosome and can recombine at a frequency proportional to their distance. According to the particulate theory of genetics, genes are discrete physical entities that are transmitted from parents to offspring without blending or any environmental influence, except when mutation or gene conversion Figure P26. It may have horticultural application by producing seedless apple varieties such as Spencer Seedless or Wellington Bloomless. Parthenogenesis may be induced in sea urchins by hypotonic media or in some amphibia by mechanical or electric stimulation of the egg. On theoretical grounds, parthenogenesis may be disadvantageous because it deprives the species of elimination of disadvantageous mutations on account of the lack of recombination available in bisexual reproduction. Parthenogenesis may cause embryonic lethality in mouse if the imprinted paternal genes are not expressed. Parthenogenesis is not known to occur in humans (or generally in mammals but deletion of P 1448 Particulate Radiation or imprinting occurs. The bacterial chromosome or some of the plasmids seem to have a centromere-like protein that may bind to the cell poles and to 10 copies of a sequence situated along a 200 kb region near the replicational origin. Mechanisms ("addiction" system) exist to resolve plasmid dimers and to ensure that each cell would have at least one copy of a plasmid. The plasmid-free cells may be eliminated (Engelberg-Kulka H, Glaser G 1999 Annu Rev Microbiol 53:43). Partitioning: In statistics, breaking down the variances among the identifiable experimental components or in a compound chi square to reduce the quantity of the residual or error variance. The group includes the densoviruses of arthropods, the autonomous, lytic parvoviruses and the adeno-associated viruses. In the absence of Ess1 the nuclei fragment and growth ceases, dodo has apparently similar function as Ess1 and it is interchangeable. Partitioning Since genetic segregation is expected to comply with the binomial distribution, the coefficients indicate the frequencies of the individual phenotypic (or in case of trinomial distribution) genotypic frequencies. The Pascal triangle represents the coefficients of individual terms of expanded binomials. The frequency of a particular class can be readily calculated because of the sum of the coefficients is displayed at the bottom of the columns. These proteins are situated at the centromeres and move the spindle at late metaphase and anaphase. Passive Immunity: Acquired by the transfer of antibodies or lymphocytes Passive Transport: Does not require special energy donor for the process. Pasteurella multocida: A pathogenic bacterium causing cholera in birds, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, atrophic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa) in pigs, and humans may be infected by it through cat or dog bites.

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