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Mohenjo-daro (Mound of the Dead) is an archeological site situated in the Larkana District of Sindh symptoms 22 weeks pregnant discount liv 52 uk, Pakistan medicine show cheap 100 ml liv 52 mastercard,on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley symptoms zollinger ellison syndrome buy liv 52 in india, around 28 kilometres (17 mi) from the town of Larkana treatment hyperthyroidism order liv 52 200 ml free shipping. Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35 km (22 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. Afghanistan Neza e Sultan is an extinct volcano located in Chagai District, Baluchistan, have deep resources of Sulfur. Sardar Atta ullah Mengal was the first Chief Minister of Balochistan from May 1972 to February 1973. Sir Francis Moody was the first Governor of Punjab from August 1947 to August 1949. Afghanistan gained its independence in 1921 under the leadership of Aman ul Allah. Ghulam Muhammad Barrage is also called Kotri Barrage; which is situated on river Indus. Hussain Shaheed Suharwardi was the first Pakistani Prime Minister, who visited in china. Mother tongue of Quaid-e-Azam was Gujrati and the professional qualification of Quaid-eAzam was Bar at Law. Sir Sikindar Hayat was Chief Minister of Punjab in 1937 Sardar Abdul Qayyum Khan presented Chenab Formula` to resolve the Kashmir dispute. Interaction of Elementary Particles and weak forces Habib Bank provided 80 million loans for making 1st budget of Pakistan. Zakir Hussain was the first Muslim president of India the last day of the Quaid-e-Azam was written by:Col. The foundation stone of the Sikhism`s holiest place Golden Tample at Amritsar was laid by Hazrat Mian Mir. Baburnama (alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Babur (1483-1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. Hindko Anjuman-i-Hamayat-Islam was established in subcontinent 1884 and Khalifa Hamid-udDin is the first president. The district of the country having lowest population density is Kharan (with a population density of only 4 ppl/km2, Awaran and Chagai share the same with Kharan). The first President of America who made an official visit to Pakistan was Dwight D. Total cultivable Land of Pakistan is approximately 80 million hectares which is the 25% of total land area. The first Prime minister of Bangladesh was Mujibur Rehman the name given to the border which separates Pakistan and Afghanistan is Durand line the first Pakistani to receive the Nobel Prize was Abdul Salam in 1979 (physics) the national flag of Pakistan was designed by Amiruddin Kidwai. Miner - e - Pakistan was designed by Haji Murad Khan (a Russian engineer) and its height is 196 feet) Barani Dam in Pakistan was built on river Kurram. In the United Nations, Pitras Bukhari was the first permanent representative of Pakistan. The village life of Pakistan is the best depicted in the paintings of Ustad Allah Bakhsh. Bhutto government`s land reforms prescribed the ceiling of land holding as 150 acres of irrigated and 300 acres of un-irrigated land. Under the constitution of Pakistan, Fedral Shariat Court shall consist of not more than Eight Judges. The Lahore Resolution 1940 was first called Pakistan Resolution by Hindu press and newspapers. After independence, the first industrial unit inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam was Valika Textile Mills. Under 1956 constitution, for the first time, the president was given the power to opiont the prime minister at his own discretion. Under 1962 constitution, Basic Democracy System` served as an electoral college for the election of the president, central and provincial legislatures. Senate, under 1973 constitution, is a permanent chamber which cannot be dissolved and its one-third members shall be replaced after every three years. Proclamation of Emergency on account of war of internal disturbances has been laid down in Article 232 of the constitution of 1973. Zia imposed Martial Law on Jully 5, 1977 and lifted Martial Law on 30th December, 1985.
Although haemoglobin levels of 7 g/dl or less require investigation symptoms zinc deficiency liv 52 120 ml without prescription, transfusion may not be required medicine images purchase liv 52 with paypal. Minimizing the risks and increasing the effective use of neonatal transfusion the following practical measures reduce the risks of neonatal transfusion and increase its effectiveness symptoms kidney pain discount liv 52 online american express. Transfusion of washed medicine university liv 52 60 ml amex, irradiated platelets may help the infant at a period of dangerous thrombocytopenia. Fresh frozen plasma Fresh frozen plasma should only be used for specific clinical indications for which it is proved to be effective: s the correction of clinically important bleeding tendencies due to deficiency of plasma clotting factors and only when a safer, virus-inactivated product is unavailable For infusion or exchange transfusion treatment of the rare conditions of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or haemolytic -uraemic syndrome. However, it should only be considered where the surgery is expected to result in sufficient blood loss to require allogeneic transfusion. Vigilant monitoring of vital signs and the surgical site is an essential part of patient management. These differences are partly due to variations in the medical condition of patients, but are also caused by: s Differences in surgical and anaesthetic techniques s Different attitudes to the use of blood s Differences in the cost and availability of blood products and alternatives to transfusion. In some patients, the need for transfusion is obvious, but it is often difficult to decide whether transfusion is really necessary. There is no single, simple measure that shows that oxygenation of the tissues is inadequate or is becoming inadequate. Several factors must be taken into account in assessing the patient, such as: s Age s Pre-existing anaemia s Medical disorders s Anaesthesia (may mask clinical signs) s Haemoglobin concentration s Fluid status. Preparation of the patient the careful assessment and management of patients prior to surgery can do much to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. The surgeon who initially assesses the patient must ensure he or she is adequately prepared for surgery and anaesthesia. Good communication between the surgeon and anaesthetist is vital before, during and after the operation. Anaemia should be treated and, if possible, its cause diagnosed and treated before planned surgery. There is rarely justification for the use of preoperative blood transfusion simply to facilitate elective surgery. Preoperative haemoglobin level Many practitioners will accept a threshold haemoglobin level of approximately 78 g/dl in a well-compensated and otherwise healthy patient presenting for minor surgery. However, a higher preoperative haemoglobin level will be needed before elective surgery in the following situations. Treating and optimizing these disorders preoperatively will: s Improve the overall oxygen supply to the tissues s Reduce the possibility of a transfusion becoming necessary at operation. Coagulation disorders Undiagnosed and untreated disorders of coagulation in surgical patients are very likely to result in excessive operative blood loss. It is essential to make a careful preoperative enquiry into any unusual bleeding tendency of the patient and his or her family, together with a drug history. If possible, obtain expert haematological advice before surgery in all patients with an established coagulation disorder. Surgery and acquired coagulation disorders Bleeding during or after surgery is sometimes very difficult to evaluate. It may simply be caused by a problem following surgical intervention, in which case re-operation may be necessary. Start treatment at least 12 days prior to surgery and continue for 510 days, depending on the risk of postoperative bleeding. Regular assessment of the patient in the perioperative period is essential to detect unexpected bleeding. Prophylactic measures and the availability of platelet concentrates for transfusion are invariably required for surgery in this group of patients. Platelet transfusions should be given if there is clinical evidence of severe microvascular bleeding and the platelet count is below 50 x 10 9/L. Anticoagulants: warfarin (coumarin), heparin In patients who are being treated with anticoagulants (oral or parenteral), the type of surgery and the thrombotic risk should be taken into account when planning anticoagulant control perioperatively. This dose may need to be repeated to bring coagulation factors to an acceptable range. Techniques to reduce operative blood loss the training, experience and care of the surgeon performing the procedure is the most crucial factor in reducing operative blood loss.
Exactly what defines a law and exactly what defines a theory is contested within the philosophy of science symptoms zenkers diverticulum purchase liv 52 100 ml on line. In 144 Scientific Research Supporting the Foundations of Friction Ridge Examinations C H A P T E R 1 4 were due to massive objects exerting their force of gravity on the spacetime continuum medicine grand rounds quality 100 ml liv 52, very similar to bowling balls placed on an outstretched blanket medications in spanish liv 52 200 ml low cost. The laws and theories are tested by experiments symptoms 20 weeks pregnant cheap liv 52 120 ml mastercard, observations, and hypothesis testing. Theories can be accepted for hundreds of years, but with the advent of newer technology, theories are subjected to new tests and rigors, and eventually outdated or incomplete theories give way, absorbed into new, mature theories. Yet the arrangement of the minutiae and the ridge sequences is very robust and reproducible. According to Popper, to satisfy the criteria for scientific laws, these laws must be falsifiable. One must simply find instances where different individuals have indistinguishable friction ridge skin or instances where the arrangement of the ridges in friction ridge skin is observed to naturally change over time (excluding injury or trauma, of course). However, in the history of this discipline, no such instances have been demonstrated. Obviously, the forensic community would be shocked, and the verity of the law would be questioned. But in a purely Popperian view (Thornton, 2005): No observation is free from the possibility of error-consequently we may question whether our experimental result was what it appeared to be. Thus, while advocating falsifiability as the criterion of demarcation for science, Popper explicitly allows for the fact that in practice a single conflicting or counter-instance is never sufficient methodologically to falsify a theory [or law], and that scientific theories [or laws] are often retained even though much of the available evidence conflicts with them, or is anomalous with respect to them. Fundamental theories exist that explain the two laws of uniqueness and persistency. Uniqueness is explained by biological variations (genetic influences and random localized stresses) within the developing fetus. Persistence is maintained by the substructural formations of the developing skin (hemidesmosomes, papillae, and basal layer). Specifically, the ridge arrangements, the robust arrangements of the minutiae within the ridge patterns, and the shapes and structures of the ridges all combine to form a unique arrangement of friction ridge skin in the hands and feet of each individual. The substructure of the skin changes over time and ridge heights decrease (Chacko C H A P T E R 1 4 Scientific Research Supporting the Foundations of Friction Ridge Examinations these are theories that explain the laws. These theories have empirical evidence and testing that support, but do not conclusively prove, them. Additional information may be learned that will cause these theories to be adjusted and incorporate the new data. In some instances, the results will call for modifications to be made to a law or theory, which in turn leads to further hypotheses to test under the new or modified law. Although there are no rigorous formulas or recipes for testing hypotheses and designing experiments (nor should there be), a generic model for hypothesis testing can be described. The steps of this model are often referred to as "scientific method" Huber and Headrick (1999) noted that. They stated that scientific method is derived from epistemology (the study of knowledge and justified belief, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Francis Bacon defined a basic approach to scientific method encapsulated in four steps: (1) observe, (2) measure, (3) explain, and (4) verify (Huber and Headrick, 1999). This description in modern times has been modified into a hypothesis testing model. The basic steps of the hypothesis testing model have been described as:1 · Observation. The researcher must first make a specific observation or note a general problem or query. A suitable experiment is designed to 1 this basic model can be found in most elementary collegiate science texts in various forms. The data are evaluated, often statistically (though that is not a requirement), and conclusions are drawn whether to accept the hypothesis or reject the hypothesis and accept the null hypothesis. The results of the experiment should be reproducible by another scientist following the methodology. This is important not only for sharing the knowledge but also for peer review and critical analysis. This is what Hempel and Oppenheim (1948) refer to as a derived theory (as opposed to a fundamental theory).
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