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The zona pellucida is important in fertilization as it provides sperm recognition sites for sperm binding and is the most efficient trigger of the sperm acrosome reaction blood pressure top number high discount furosemide 100 mg visa. The acrosome reaction results in the release of acrosomal enzymes (acrosin and trypsinlike enzymes) needed to digest a hole in the zona pellucida hypertension images best 100mg furosemide. At the time of fertilization blood pressure chart 18 year old discount furosemide 100mg on line, when a spermatozoon pushes through the hole in the zona pellucida to enter the ovum arrhythmia electrolyte imbalance cheap 40mg furosemide with amex, a period of hyperactivity of flagellar beat occurs, propelling the spermatozoon into the ovum. Thus, flagellar beat appears to be more important at the moment of fertilization rather than getting to the site of fertilization. Electron micrographs suggest that the plasma membranes of the sperm and ovum fuse, that of the spermatozoon being left at the surface of the ovum. Penetration is followed by release of electron-dense cortical granules that underlie the plasmalemma of the ovum (cortical granule reaction) and by immediate changes in the permeability of the zona pellucida, which thereafter excludes entry by any additional competing sperm (polyspermy). The ovum now completes the second maturation division and extrudes the second polar body. The nucleus (head) of the spermatozoon swells and forms the male pronucleus, and the sperm body and tail are resorbed. The two pronuclei move to the center of the cell, and two centrioles, supplied by the anterior centriole of the spermatozoon, appear. The chromatin of each pronucleus resolves into a set of chromosomes that align themselves on a spindle to undergo a normal mitotic division of the first cleavage. Each cell resulting from this division receives a full diploid set of chromosomes. The cells are bounded by the zona pellucida, and a mulberry-like body, the morula, is formed. Cleavage is a fractionating process: no new cytoplasm is formed, and at each division the cells become smaller until a normal, predetermined, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio is reached. Cleavage occurs as the morula slowly is moved along the oviduct by the waves of peristaltic contractions in the muscle coat. The fluid increases in amount, the intercellular spaces become confluent, and a single cavity, the blastocele, is formed. The morula has now become a blastocyst that forms a hollow sphere containing, at one pole, a mass of cells called the inner cell mass that will form the embryo proper. The capsule-like wall of the blastocyst consists of a single layer of cells, the trophoblast. After reaching a critical mass, the blastocyst breaks through the surrounding zona pellucida and remains free within the uterine cavity for about a day; then it attaches to the endometrium, which is in the secretory phase. Encasement within the zona pellucida protects the forming blastocyst from the possible damaging effects of oviductal movements, possible adverse effects of oviductal and uterine secretions, and/or destruction by maternal tissues until it reaches a critical mass for survival. During cleavage, the zona pellucida progressively thins and coupled with the expansion of the blastocoele, the blastocyst hatches and crawls through and out of the surrounding zona pellucida. The hatched blastocyst makes contact with the maternal endometrial surface through apposition of its trophectoderm to the uterine lining epithelial cells. The initial contact is mediated by cell surface oligosaccharides that play an important role in recognition, adhesion and attachment to the uterine epithelium. Following these events, trophoblast cells penetrate between surface uterine epithelial cells and establish direct contact with underlying decidual cells. Implantation is initiated by close approximation of the trophoblast to the microvilli and surface projections of the uterine epithelial cells. At the points of contact, the cytoplasm of the trophoblast contains clusters of coated vesicles and numerous lysosomes. The microvilli shorten and disappear, and the trophoblast extends finger-like processes between the uterine epithelial cells, and the two layers become closely locked by numerous tight junctions that develop between them. The uterine epithelial cells degenerate and are engulfed by the trophoblast, the cellular debris appearing in phagosomes within the trophoblast cytoplasm. Where it is fixed to the endothelium, the trophoblast proliferates to form a cellular mass between the blastocyst and maternal tissues. No cell boundaries can be made out in this cell mass, which is called the syncytial trophoblast. The syncytium continues to erode the endometrium at the point of contact, creating a ragged cavity into which the blastocyst sinks, gradually becoming more deeply embedded until it lies entirely within the endometrial stroma. Later, proliferation of surrounding cells restores the surface continuity of the endometrial lining. As the blastocyst sinks into the endometrium, the syncytial trophoblast rapidly increases in thickness at the original site of attachment and progressively extends to cover the remainder of the blastocyst.

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The testis descends beneath the peritoneum to reach the entrance of the presumptive inguinal canal by the third month of fetal life heart attack 35 best buy furosemide. Shortly before birth the testis completes its decent through the inguinal canal (trans-inguinal descent) and into the scrotum blood pressure chart urdu best order furosemide. A funnel-shaped outpocketing of the peritoneum called the processus vaginalis passes with the testis into the scrotal swelling along with other layers acquired from the abdominal wall blood pressure vitamins buy furosemide 40 mg low price. The processus vaginalis is obliterated with the exception of a small space that partially surrounds the testis arrhythmia or dysrhythmia discount furosemide 100mg on-line. That region of the processus vaginalis that remains to line the scrotal cavity forms the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis, that which is associated with the testis forms the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. Summary Production of sperm occurs in the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and represents a holocrine (exocrine) secretion of the testes. Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis depend on high concentrations of testosterone, the endocrine secretion of the testes produced by interstitial cells. Germinal epithelium essentially contains two major classes of cells: a mobile population of germ or spermatogenic cells and a stable population of supporting (Sertoli) cells. Seminiferous epithelium is unique in that it is divided into basal and adluminal compartments, each differing in their cellular content and environments. The basal compartment contains stem cells (spermatogonia) and newly formed primary spermatocytes that are exposed to an environment similar to that of blood plasma. The primary spermatocytes soon migrate into the adluminal compartment, where, along with secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa, they are exposed to an environment rich in ions that contains amino acids not found in the basal compartment and has a high concentration of testosterone. Any substances that enter or leave the adluminal compartment must pass through the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells. The blood-testis barrier also prevents escape of developing germ cells out of the adluminal compartment and into general body tissues. If this escape occurred, the haploid germ cells might be interpreted as foreign elements, resulting in immunologic responses directed against developing germ cells in the germinal epithelium and thus causing sterility. Development of germ cells occurs in the adluminal compartment, in the embrace of the complex cytoplasmic processes of Sertoli cells. As spermatogenic cells develop and differentiate, the Sertoli cell is thought to move them actively along its lateral surfaces toward the lumen, where they are released from the apical surface of the Sertoli cell. Gap junctions permit communication between Sertoli cells and allow for coordinated release of spermatozoa from a given segment of a seminiferous tubule. Testosterone is present in the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules and in the proximal duct system as far as the distal regions of the ductus epididymidis. Thus, there exists the unusual circumstance of an endocrine secretion of the testis (testosterone and/or its metabolites) not only entering the bloodstream but also passing through the lumen of the proximal duct system to have an effect on the ductus epididymidis. Systemic concentrations of testosterone are essential for development and functional maintenance of the rest of the excretory duct system and for the male secondary sex characteristics. In many instances, testosterone serves primarily as a prohormone and its metabolites are the active factors. Dihydrotestosterone, for example, is the active agent for the prostate and epididymis. Much testicular fluid is produced by the germinal epithelium and serves as a vehicle for the transport of spermatozoa out of the seminiferous tubules and into the excretory duct system. Spermatozoa released into the seminiferous tubules are nonmotile and are moved into the tubuli recti by the flow of testicular fluid and the shallow peristaltic movements of the seminiferous tubules. The ciliated epithelium and the increased smooth muscle in the walls of the ductuli efferentes contribute to the movement of spermatozoa into the proximal epididymis. Most of the testicular fluid is absorbed in the ductuli efferentes and proximal ductus epididymidis. Sperm entering the epididymis show weak, random movement, and for the most part they are incapable of fertilization; spermatozoa from the distal epididymis show strong, unidirectional motility and are capable of fertilization. Sperm are slowly propelled through the long ductus epididymidis by peristaltic contractions of its muscular walls. During their passage through the epididymis, spermatozoa show continued differentiation of the acrosome and sperm head, as well as progressive increase in the fertilizing capacity. Sperm require the environment provided by the epididymis to become physiologically mature and viable. Although the maturation process is androgen-dependent, how the various segments of the epididymis control and regulate the physiologic maturation of spermatozoa is unknown.

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The Eclectics used milk thistle for varicose veins hypertension 7101 order cheap furosemide line, menstrual difficulty blood pressure chart too low purchase 40mg furosemide visa, and congestion of the liver jon gomm hypertension zip discount furosemide 100mg without prescription, spleen hypertension medication discount furosemide online master card, and kidneys. Although milk thistle is most often associated with treating liver disorders, physicians have tried to apply its curative properties to other ailments, including stimulating breast-milk production and bile secretion, treating depression, and protecting against the poisonous mushroom Amanita phalliodes and other environmental toxins. The World Health Organization estimates that 4 billion people (nearly two-thirds of persons in developing countries) use herbal medicine for some aspect of health care. Of the 14 top-selling herbal supplements in the United States in 1997 in food, drug, and mass-market retail outlets, milk thistle ranked 13th (more than $3 million). The most commonly used nontraditional therapy was milk thistle, and over 50 percent of those patients felt they had experienced subjective improvement in their symptoms. A great number of plant medicines contain flavonoids, which have been reported as having antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimutagenic, antiviral, antineoplastic, antithrombotic, and vasodilatory actions. The structural components common to these molecules include two benzene rings on either side of a three-carbon ring. Multiple combinations of hydroxyl groups, sugars, oxygens, and methyl groups attached to these structures create the various classes of flavonoids: flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols (catechins), anthocyanins, and isoflavones. Flavonoids have been shown in a number of studies to be potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and lipid oxygen radicals due to lipid peroxidation. Madaus now outsources production of crude silymarin to the Italian firm Indena in Milan. In two studies of nine and six silymarin preparations, respectively, release of silybin from Legalon was more rapid and higher compared with other preparations. Silipide has been shown to be more bioavailable 13 than standardized silymarin after oral ingestion in normal volunteers, cirrhotics, and patients after cholecystectomy. The other has a relatively high silydianin content and low silybin:silydianin ratio. They appear to be stable chemotypes with characteristic silybin and silydianin contents and proportions for several generations under the same field conditions. Mechanisms of Milk Thistle Currently, milk thistle (silymarin, silybin, and Silipide) is primarily advocated as a therapeutic and hepatoprotective agent, especially in the settings of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and environmental toxin exposure. Silymarin, silybin, and Silipide have multiple mechanisms of action that may be hepatoprotective, including antioxidant activity, toxin blockade, enhanced protein synthesis, and antifibrotic activity. Antioxidant Activity Silymarin is thought to have antioxidant activity in the liver, as well as the small intestine and stomach. As an antioxidant, this compound may reduce free radical production and lipid peroxidation in the setting of hepatotoxicity. These membranes contain fatty acids that are transformed to lipoperoxidases, peroxides, and lipidic hydroperoxides. Malondialdehyde is a biproduct of phospholipid turnover and linoleic acid and is frequently used in clinical and in vitro studies as a surrogate marker for oxidation activity. Multiple in vitro studies have demonstrated lipid peroxidation inhibition using malondialdehyde as a marker in rat hepatic microsomes and mitochondria. In the setting of an acute toxic event, if stores of these compounds are depleted in intracellular or extracellular (sinusoidal) compartments, oxidative injury is unimpeded. One study exposed rats to acetaminophen at toxic doses, and then measured levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase in experimental and control rats. In another study, mice exposed to acetaminophen at toxic doses had increased levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase when treated with silymarin compared with the levels in 14 controls. Studies demonstrated that silymarin can inhibit cell lysis as measured by changes in alanine aminotransferase levels when exposing isolated hepatocytes to carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine. One study demonstrated this effect using the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides. Several studies showed that silymarin competes with the toxin for cell membrane receptor sites, thus reducing the effect of the toxin. In chronic injury, fibrosis occurs simultaneously with regeneration; the ultimate outcome is determined by which process dominates. Several studies identified mechanisms through which silybin may facilitate hepatocyte regeneration. One study demonstrated that silymarin binds to a steroid receptor,48 and it is hypothesized that structural similarity with steroids permits binding. Additionally, one study in rats suggested that silymarin can also enhance deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and, therefore, possibly enhance hepatocyte regeneration. Reportedly, human trials are in progress with Legalon that are examining antifibrotic activity.

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Syndromes

  • Activated charcoal
  • Repair the cause of bleeding
  • Cardiac rhythm monitoring
  • Transfusion reaction
  • Peanut butter
  • Tenderness in the scrotum
  • Weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
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The enzyme sarcosine oxidase converts sarcosine to glycine producing formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide hypertension kidney pathology order discount furosemide online. Peroxidase then catalyzes the oxidation of a dye (4-aminophenazone and phenol) by the peroxide forming a red-colored product 4 buy generic furosemide pills. This method is more specific than the Jaffe reaction blood pressure medication methyldopa discount furosemide 40 mg fast delivery, which tends to overestimate creatinine by about 5% in persons with normal renal function blood pressure table buy furosemide in india. Phosphotungstic acid Chemistry/Apply principles of general laboratory procedures/Biochemical/1 partially eliminated in the Jaffe reaction by: A. B the Jaffe method uses saturated picric acid, which oxidizes creatinine in alkali, forming creatinine picrate. The reaction is nonspecific; ketones, ascorbate, proteins, and other reducing agents contribute to the final color. C the Jaffe reaction is nonspecific; proteins and other reducing substances such as pyruvate, protein, and ascorbate cause positive interference. Ketoacids react with alkaline picrate almost immediately, and proteins react slowly. Therefore, reading the absorbance at 20 and 80 seconds and using the absorbance difference minimizes the effects of those compounds. However, this requires the enzymes creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. Performing a sample blank does not correct for interfering substances that react with alkaline picrate. Enzymatic and rate Jaffe reactions for creatinine the National Bureau of Standards calibrator variation than plasma creatinine give comparable results Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Biochemical/3 12. A Cystatin C can be measured by enzyme immunoassay, immunonephelometry, and immunoturbidimetry. However, there is no standardized calibrator as for creatinine, and therefore, results vary considerably from lab to lab. The coefficient of variation for these methods tends to be slightly higher than for creatinine. Since the enzymatic methods are specific, they give lower plasma creatinine results than the Jaffe method in persons with normal renal function. However, they tend to give higher clearance results than for inulin or iohexol clearance because some creatinine is secreted by the renal tubules. C Cystatin C is eliminated almost exclusively by the kidneys and plasma levels are not dependent on age, sex, or nutritional status. However, plasma levels are affected by some drugs, including those used to prevent renal transplant rejection. Increased plasma levels have been reported in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. A random error occurred when the absorbance signal was being processed by the analyzer D. The fluid is urine from accidental puncture of the urinary bladder Chemistry/Identify sources of error/Biochemical/3 creatinine concentration as a reference For this reason, creatinine is routinely measured in 24-hour urine samples to determine the completeness of collection. As gestation progresses, more creatinine is excreted into the amniotic fluid by the fetus. Although a level above 2 mg/dL is not a specific indicator of maturity, a level below 2 mg/dL indicates immaturity. A Measurement of urinary microalbumin concentration should be reported as a ratio of albumin to creatinine. This eliminates the need for 24-hour collection in order to avoid variation caused by differences in fluid intake. Binding of creatinine in urine to copper forms a peroxidase-like complex that results in oxidation of the benzidine compound.

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