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In addition gastritis yahoo answers prevacid 30 mg on-line, Pierce and Preston (2000) evaluated threshold models in which the risk was zero up to a given threshold and then increased linearly gastritis diet recommendations purchase prevacid in india. Pierce and Preston (2000) warn against overinterpretation of the minimum dose at which evidence of a significant doseresponse is found gastritis diet on a budget safe 30mg prevacid, indicating that "in the presence of available data gastritis diet rice order prevacid online now, it is neither sound statistical interpretation nor prudent risk evaluation to take the view that the risk should be considered as zero in some low-dose range due to lack of statistical significance when restricting attention to that range. Other Analyses the A-bomb survivor data have been combined with data from cohorts of persons exposed for medical reasons, primarily for the purpose of further exploration of the modifying effects of age at exposure, attained age, and time since exposure (Little and others 1998, 1999a, 1999c; Little, 1999). Specifically, 15 sites were analyzed with parameters expressing the modifying effects of age at exposure and attained age set equal to those for all solid cancers. More detailed analyses of the five most common types of solid cancer (stomach, colon, liver, lung, and female breast) were conducted. Data from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries are preferable to mortality data for evaluating site-specific risks. These data have the major advantages of including Although these analyses provide valuable information on the comparability of risks and of modifying factors in different cohorts, the results for the A-bomb survivor cohort itself generally confirm the findings reported earlier in the chapter, and they are not discussed further here. Biologically based models have also been applied to the A-bomb survivor data (Kai and others 1997; Pierce and Mendelsohn 1999). This often means that there is considerable uncertainty in quantifying risk, in evaluating modifying factors, and even in determining whether or not there is a dose-response relationship. Although it is likely that radiosensitivity varies across sites, it is often not possible to separate true differences from chance fluctuations. Cancers at some sites may fail to exhibit associations because of small numbers of cases and diagnostic misclassification, which is more problematic for mortality data than for incidence data. Except for sex-specific cancers (breast, ovary, uterus, and prostate) the estimates are averaged over sex. All estimates and p-values are based on a model in which the age-at-exposure and attained-age effects were fixed at the estimates for all solid cancers as a group. Thompson and colleagues evaluated cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1987 for the cancer sites shown in Figure 6-4 and Table 6-2. For each site, they evaluated whether there was a significant association with dose, whether there were departures from linearity, and whether risks were modified by city, sex, age at exposure, attained age, or time since exposure. Relatively large values were also seen for nonmelanoma skin cancer and for cancers of the ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid. In addition to these sites, the 95% confidence intervals excluded zero for cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, and lung. Preston and colleagues (2002a) conducted pooled analyses of breast cancer incidence in eight cohorts. These analyses, as well as earlier analyses by Tokunaga and colleagues (1994) and by Thompson and coworkers (1994), found that the dose-response for breast cancer was well described by a linear function. Salivary Gland Cancer Because some types of salivary gland tumors are not readily identified by the conventional disease classification codes used by tumor registries, a special evaluation that included pathology reviews of both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was undertaken by Land and colleagues (1996). Nearly one-third (31%) of the solid cancer cases included in the incidence data were stomach cancers, so this cancer potentially has a strong impact on overall solid cancer results. However, analyses of solid cancer mortality data with stomach cancer excluded resulted in parameter estimates that were similar to those obtained for all solid cancers (Preston and others 2003). Liver cancers reported on death certificates might in fact be cancers originating in other organs because the liver is a frequent site for metastatic cancer. This can be a problem even for tumor registry data, since some cases were based only on death certificate information. For this reason, Cologne and colleagues (1999) conducted a study of primary liver cancer based on extensive pathology review of known or suspected cases of liver cancer.

In each case diet gastritis adalah prevacid 30 mg online, the main cause of the unchecked progress through the cell cycle was a faulty copy of the regulatory protein gastritis diet курс cheap 30mg prevacid. As a cell is exposed to more stress www gastritis diet com prevacid 15 mg discount, higher levels of p53 and p21 accumulate atrophic gastritis symptoms uk order cheap prevacid line, making it less likely that the cell will move into the S phase. In the active, dephosphorylated state, Rb binds to proteins called transcription factors, most commonly, E2F (Figure 10. Transcription factors "turn on" specific genes, allowing the production of proteins encoded by that gene. When Rb is bound to E2F, production of proteins necessary for the G1/S transition is blocked. As the cell increases in size, Rb is slowly phosphorylated until it becomes inactivated. Rb releases E2F, which can now turn on the gene that produces the transition protein, and this particular block is removed. For the cell to move past each of the checkpoints, all positive regulators must be "turned on," and all negative regulators must be "turned off. Rb and other proteins that negatively regulate the cell cycle are sometimes called tumor suppressors. Why do you think the name tumor suppressor might be appropriate for these proteins Despite the redundancy and overlapping levels of cell cycle control, errors do occur. Even when all of the cell cycle controls are fully functional, a small percentage of replication errors (mutations) will be passed on to the daughter cells. All cancers start when a gene mutation gives rise to a faulty protein that plays a key role in cell reproduction. Eventually, the pace of the cell cycle speeds up as the effectiveness of the control and repair mechanisms decreases. Uncontrolled growth of the mutated cells outpaces the growth of normal cells in the area, and a tumor ("-oma") can result. Proto-oncogenes the genes that code for the positive cell cycle regulators are called proto-oncogenes. Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that, when mutated in certain ways, become oncogenes, genes that cause a cell to become cancerous. If a cell cannot reproduce, the mutation is not propagated and the damage is minimal. For example, a mutation that allows Cdk to be activated without being partnered with cyclin could push the cell cycle past a checkpoint before all of the required conditions are met. If the resulting daughter cells are too damaged to undergo further cell divisions, the mutation would not be propagated and no harm would come to the organism. However, if the atypical daughter cells are able to undergo further cell divisions, subsequent generations of cells will probably accumulate even more mutations, some possibly in additional genes that regulate the cell cycle. The Cdk gene in the above example is only one of many genes that are considered proto-oncogenes. In addition to the cell cycle regulatory proteins, any protein that influences the cycle can be altered in such a way as to override cell cycle checkpoints. An oncogene is any gene that, when altered, leads to an increase in the rate of cell cycle progression. Tumor Suppressor Genes Like proto-oncogenes, many of the negative cell cycle regulatory proteins were discovered in cells that had become cancerous. The collective function of the bestunderstood tumor suppressor gene proteins, Rb, p53, and p21, is to put up a roadblock to cell cycle progression until certain events are completed. Tumor suppressors are similar to brakes in a vehicle: Malfunctioning brakes can contribute to a car crash. Mutated p53 genes have been identified in more than one-half of all human tumor cells. This discovery is not surprising in light of the multiple roles that the p53 protein plays at the G1 checkpoint. At this point, a functional p53 will deem the cell unsalvageable and trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis). The damaged version of p53 found in cancer cells, however, cannot trigger apoptosis.

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An alternative to labor and delivery is the surgical delivery of the baby through a procedure called a Caesarian section gastritis attack diet discount prevacid 30mg mastercard. This is major abdominal surgery and can lead to post-surgical complications for the mother gastritis diet ketogenic discount prevacid 15mg line, but in some cases it may be the only way to safely deliver the baby gastritis diet drinks discount prevacid 15 mg online. When the baby begins suckling at the breast chronic gastritis dogs buy cheap prevacid on line, signals are sent to the hypothalamus causing the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary. Contraception and Birth Control the prevention of a pregnancy comes under the terms contraception or birth control. Strictly speaking, contraception refers to preventing the sperm and egg from joining. Contraceptive Methods Method Barrier Hormonal Examples male condom, female condom, sponge, cervical cap, diaphragm, spermicides oral, patch, vaginal ring injection implant Failure Rate in Typical Use Over 12 Months 15 to 24% 8% 3% less than 1% 12 to 25% 27% less than 1% Other natural family planning withdrawal sterilization Table 43. The failure rates listed are not the ideal rates that could be realized, but the typical rates that occur. Barrier methods, such as condoms, cervical caps, and diaphragms, block sperm from entering the uterus, preventing fertilization. Sponges, which are saturated with spermicides, are placed in the vagina at the cervical opening. Combinations of spermicidal chemicals and barrier methods achieve lower failure rates than do the methods when used separately. Nearly a quarter of the couples using barrier methods, natural family planning, or withdrawal can expect a failure of the method. Natural family planning is based on the monitoring of the menstrual cycle and having intercourse only during times when the egg is not available. These changes give a general indication of when intercourse is more or less likely to result in fertilization. Withdrawal involves the removal of the penis from the vagina during intercourse, before ejaculation occurs. The most reliable method, with a failure rate of less than 1 percent, is the implantation of the hormone under the skin. Compliance with the contraceptive method is a strong contributor to the success or failure rate of any particular method. The only method that is completely effective at preventing conception is abstinence. Tubal ligation and vasectomy are considered permanent prevention, while other methods are reversible and provide short-term contraception. Spontaneous termination is a miscarriage and usually occurs very early in the pregnancy, usually within the first few weeks. This occurs when the fetus cannot develop properly and the gestation is naturally terminated. Laws regulating abortion vary between states and tend to view fetal viability as the criteria for allowing or preventing the procedure. About 75 percent of causes of infertility can be identified; these include diseases, such as sexually transmitted diseases that can cause scarring of the reproductive tubes in either men or women, or developmental problems frequently related to abnormal hormone levels in one of the individuals. Short-term stress can affect hormone levels, while long-term stress can delay puberty and cause less frequent menstrual cycles. Other factors that affect fertility include toxins (such as cadmium), tobacco smoking, marijuana use, gonadal injuries, and aging. Eggs are obtained from the woman after extensive hormonal treatments that prepare mature eggs for fertilization and prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg. Sperm are obtained from the man and they are combined with the eggs and supported through several cell divisions to ensure viability of the zygotes. The early stages of embryonic development are also crucial for ensuring the fitness of the organism. To ensure that the offspring has only one complete diploid set of chromosomes, only one sperm must fuse with one egg. In mammals, the egg is protected by a layer of extracellular matrix consisting mainly of glycoproteins called the zona pellucida. When a sperm binds to the zona pellucida, a series of biochemical events, called the acrosomal reactions, take place. In placental mammals, the acrosome contains digestive enzymes that initiate the degradation of the glycoprotein matrix protecting the egg and allowing the sperm plasma 1270 Chapter 43 Animal Reproduction and Development membrane to fuse with the egg plasma membrane, as illustrated in Figure 43. The fusion of these two membranes creates an opening through which the sperm nucleus is transferred into the ovum.

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The shell consists of the ventral surface called the plastron and the dorsal surface called the carapace gastritis symptoms heart attack quality 15mg prevacid, which develops from the ribs gastritis diet 0 cd prevacid 15mg with mastercard. The plastron is made of scutes or plates; the scutes can be used to differentiate species of turtles chronic gastritis omeprazole prevacid 30mg without a prescription. The two clades of turtles are most easily recognized by how they retract their necks gastritis histology discount 15mg prevacid fast delivery. The dominant group, which includes all North American species, retracts its neck in a vertical S-curve. The term "turtle" is sometimes used to describe only those species of Testudines that live in the sea, with the terms "tortoise" and "terrapin" used to refer to species that live on land and in fresh water, respectively. While vertebrates like bats fly without feathers, birds rely on feathers and wings, along with other modifications of body structure and physiology, for flight. Characteristics of Birds Birds are endothermic, and because they fly, they require large amounts of energy, necessitating a high metabolic rate. Like mammals, which are also endothermic, birds have an insulating covering that keeps heat in the body: feathers. Specialized feathers called down feathers are especially insulating, trapping air in spaces between each feather to decrease the rate of heat loss. Feathers not only act as insulation but also allow for flight, enabling the lift and thrust necessary to become airborne. The feathers on a wing are flexible, so the collective feathers move and separate as air moves through them, reducing the drag on the wing. Flight feathers are asymmetrical, which affects airflow over them and provides some of the lifting and thrusting force required for flight (Figure 29. Two types of flight feathers are found on the wings, primary feathers and secondary feathers. Secondary feathers are located closer to the body, attach to the forearm portion of the wing and provide lift. Contour feathers are the feathers found on the body, and they help reduce drag produced by wind resistance during flight. Flapping of the entire wing occurs primarily through the actions of the chest muscles, the pectoralis and the supracoracoideus. These muscles are highly developed in birds and account for a higher percentage of body mass than in most mammals. The sternum of birds is 814 Chapter 29 Vertebrates larger than that of other vertebrates, which accommodates the large muscles required to generate enough upward force to generate lift with the flapping of the wings. Another skeletal modification found in most birds is the fusion of the two clavicles (collarbones), forming the furcula or wishbone. The furcula is flexible enough to bend and provide support to the shoulder girdle during flapping. The largest living bird is the ostrich, and while it is much smaller than the largest mammals, it is flightless. Several modifications are found in birds to reduce body weight, including pneumatization of bones. Pneumatic bones are bones that are hollow, rather than filled with tissue (Figure 29. They contain air spaces that are sometimes connected to air sacs, and they have struts of bone to provide structural reinforcement. Pneumatic bones are not found in all birds, and they are more extensive in large birds than in small birds. Not all bones of the skeleton are pneumatic, although the skulls of almost all birds are. Birds possess a cloaca, a structure that allows water to be reabsorbed from waste back into the bloodstream. Uric acid is not expelled as a liquid but is concentrated into urate salts, which are expelled along with fecal matter. In this way, water is not held in the urinary bladder, which would increase body weight.

For a child to have free hanging earlobes gastritis like symptoms order 15 mg prevacid visa, he only needs at least one parent to have free hanging earlobes because the "E" allele masks the "e" allele diet for gastritis sufferers cheap prevacid 30 mg otc. For a person to show attached earlobes diabetic gastritis diet buy prevacid us, he/she would need to get an "e" allele from each parent gastritis diet or exercise discount prevacid express. Also, care must be taken with obtaining accurate information on the phenotype of their siblings and parents, from classmates. Reflections From this investigation, I have acquired a better understanding of genetics including genes, alleles, genotype versus phenotype, and Mendelian ratios. I can now appreciate how traits are passed on from one generation to another using information from a simple survey. I now realize that some traits are dominant while others are recessive and that it is our genotype that determines whether a trait will be expressed as a physical characteristic (for example, hair color, freckles, dimples, free hanging versus attached earlobes). This investigation also has applications to the study of genetic diseases, which can also be passed on from parent to offspring. One of the most striking things I learned from this investigation is that both parents can have free hanging earlobes but their child could still be born with attached earlobes. This could apply to cases where parents appear normal but a child is born with a genetic disorder. Overall, this was an interesting practical where I got to apply critical thinking skills to answer questions about heredity. This practical is based on Section C, Continuity and Variation, Specific Objectives 1. Also, if the practical is overwhelming with 6 students, it can be done with 4 students. Safety Teachers should observe all the following safety precautions before conducting laboratory work: 1. Wild rodents should not be handled since they pass on disease by biting or through their urine. These diseases include leptospirosis; A fire extinguisher or fire blanket must be readily accessible. The extinguisher purchased should be appropriate for a biology laboratory; A first-aid kit should be kept in the laboratory and should be checked regularly for replenishment of supplies; Corrosive solutions and inflammable solvents (for example, concentrated acids, alcohols) should be clearly labelled as such and handled with great care and should be locked away when not in use. Flints rather than matches are safer to use; Electrical equipment and fittings should be regularly checked and serviced. Electrical outlets should be properly labelled (for example, 110v and 220v); A laboratory safety manual must be available. Cost might prohibit departmental ownership but hardware may be kept in a common pool for use within a school or among a group of schools. Moderation of School-Based Assessment the reliability (consistency) of the marks awarded by teachers on the School-Based Assessment is an important characteristic of high quality assessment. To assist in this process, the Council undertakes on-site moderation of the School-Based Assessment, conducted by visiting external Moderators. The Moderator will remark the skills, and investigation reports for a sample of five candidates, who are selected using the guidelines listed below. On this visit, the Moderator will also re-mark a sample of the laboratory books of Year 1 candidates, as well as provide assistance and guidance to the teachers of the Year 1 students. A copy of this report must be retained by the teacher, and be made available to the Moderator during the second term of Year 2. All samples must be delivered to the specified marking venues by the stipulated deadlines. Criteria for the Assessment of Each Skill this syllabus is grounded in the philosophy and methodology of all science disciplines. A problem to be identified will be examined in the light of available evidence and suggestions or hypotheses as to its solution formulated. These will then be tested by repeated practical observations, modified or discarded as necessary, until a hypothesis that does offer a solution is found. The history of scientific thought shows that new ideas replace old ones that were previously accepted as factual. Students must be made to realise that no solution is final and infallible since modifications are continually made in light of new knowledge and technology.

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